Sunday, 4 December 2011

Apa Itu Kemahiran Proses Sains


Using information from observations to make reasonable early conclusions.
Menggunakan data dari pemerhatian untuk membuat penerangan awal.

Making various possible interpretations from single observation
Memberikan pelbagai andaian dari pemerhatian tunggal

Using inferences as a tool to determine the appropriate additional observations.
Menggunakan inferens sebagai alat untuk mengenalpasti pemerhatian tambahan yang jitu

Testing the accuracy of inferences through additional observations.
Menguji ketepatan inferens melalui pemerhatian tambahan

Give reason to an observation or making an earlier conclusion from what have been observed.
Memberikan sebab kepada pemerhatian yang telah dibuat

The Inferences/Menginferens

Logical inference – any reason as long as it is logic.
Inferens logik- sebarang sebab yang logik

Comparing – any logical reason but the answer must be in a form of comparing.
Bandingan – sebarang sebab yang logik dalam bentuk bandingan

Controlled/exact – only one specific reason is accepted.
Jitu – hanya satu jawapan sahaja

Examples of questions

State two reasons based on the observation above.
State an inference for the condition of the fish in the aquarium.
Give a reason for the answer given in (a)
Why is the distance of the moving trolley decreasing?


The Variables/ Pemboleh ubah-pemboleh ubah

1. What to change (wc) / yang berubah
2. What to observe/measure (wm) / yang diukur/ diperhatikan
3. What to keep the same (same)/ yang sama

1. What to observe/measure

- Thing that is being observed / measured /investigated / recorded / the result of an

2. What to change (tc)

- Thing that is changed or being manipulated in an investigation and it has an effect on
thing that is observed.

3. What to keep the same

- Thing that is always the same and kept constant in an investigation.
Interpreting Data/ mentafsir maklumat

The questions based on the
n Table
n Graph
n Bar chart
n Diagram

To state:
Ø The aim/purpose of the investigation
Ø The trend or pattern of the data given
Ø The relationship between the thing to change and thing to observe.
Ø By making conclusion or what you have learnt

Aim / Purpose of the investigation or things to find out.

Examples of questions

• What is the aim/purpose of the investigation above?
• What have you found out from the investigation?
• State the purpose of the investigation.
• What is/ state the aim of the investigation/experiment/ fair test
• What is/ state the purpose of the investigation/ experiment/ fair test
• What are you going to find out?

The Sentence/ Cara Menjawab

Ø To investigate the relationship between..(what to change)..and ..(what to observe)….
Ø To find out the effect of ….(what to change)…on/to ….(what to observe)…./
Ø Mengkaji hubungan di antara ……… yang berubah …… dan …….yang diukur…..
Untuk mengkaji kesan ……..yang berubah ….. terhadap/ kepada ….. yang diukur


Stating the outcome of a future event based on prior knowledge gained through experiences or collected data.
Able to determine the outcomes from an action.
Using pattern of data explicitly to make projections.
Confident with the accuracy of the prediction.
Able to verify a statement of related to future events based on evidence or past experiences.
Extrapolating and inserting data as a tool to predict

Two ways to make prediction.
Based on the calculation from the data given. Answers obtained from the calculation is always exact (one whole number)

2. If the answer obtained is not exact or in range, write down only one whole
number from that range
Note: Depends on the questions.

Examples of questions

Predict the length of the string if a 5 kg load is used
Predict in which pot the seeds will grow the healthiest.
Predict the condition of the animal in container B after 2 weeks.
What will happen to the plant if it is covered with a box?



Making a statement of which can be proven by doing an experiment or investigation or fair test

Hypothesis sentence

n The more the time taken to heat the water, the more the temperature is.
n As the time taken to heat the water increases, the temperature also increases.
n The longer the string, the lesser the number of swings.
n Plants need water to grow well
n If the type of objects are different, the ability to absorb of water also different.

Examples of questions

a) State a hypothesis based on the investigation above.

b) What is the hypothesis of this investigation?

c) Write a hypothesis based on the information above.

Technique of answering:

…..( trend/pattern)…. …(wtc)….., ……(trend pattern )…… ……(wto) ………

2. As/If/When ......(wtc)…. ….(trend/pattern)…., ….(wto) … also …..(trend/pattern)….

Clue: 1. Identify the WTC and WTO
2 Identify the trend/pattern of the WTC and WTO (if any)
3..Relate the WTC and WTO to form hypothesis sentence

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